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壓電加速度傳感器的結構與安裝
- 2022-01-07-

  常(chang)用的(de)(de)壓(ya)(ya)電加(jia)速(su)(su)度(du)傳(chuan)(chuan)感(gan)(gan)器(qi)由彈簧(huang)、質(zhi)量(liang)塊、底座(zuo)(zuo)、壓(ya)(ya)電元(yuan)(yuan)件(jian)(jian)和(he)卡環(huan)(huan)(huan)組成。壓(ya)(ya)電元(yuan)(yuan)件(jian)(jian)-質(zhi)量(liang)-彈簧(huang)系統安裝(zhuang)在圓形中(zhong)心(xin)柱上,該(gai)柱與(yu)基座(zuo)(zuo)連接(jie)。這種結構(gou)(gou)具(ju)有高諧振頻率。但是,當底座(zuo)(zuo)與(yu)測試(shi)對象連接(jie)時,如果(guo)底座(zuo)(zuo)變(bian)形,將直接(jie)影響振動(dong)傳(chuan)(chuan)感(gan)(gan)器(qi)的(de)(de)輸出。此(ci)外,測試(shi)對象和(he)環(huan)(huan)(huan)境(jing)的(de)(de)溫(wen)度(du)變(bian)化會影響壓(ya)(ya)電元(yuan)(yuan)件(jian)(jian),使預載(zai)發生變(bian)化,容(rong)易引起溫(wen)度(du)漂(piao)移。壓(ya)(ya)電元(yuan)(yuan)件(jian)(jian)通(tong)過夾緊(jin)環(huan)(huan)(huan)夾緊(jin)在三(san)角形中(zhong)心(xin)柱上。當壓(ya)(ya)電加(jia)速(su)(su)度(du)傳(chuan)(chuan)感(gan)(gan)器(qi)感(gan)(gan)受到(dao)軸向振動(dong)時,壓(ya)(ya)電元(yuan)(yuan)件(jian)(jian)承受剪切應力。這種結構(gou)(gou)對基座(zuo)(zuo)的(de)(de)變(bian)形和(he)溫(wen)度(du)變(bian)化有很好(hao)的(de)(de)隔離效果(guo),諧振頻率高,線性(xing)度(du)好(hao)。環(huan)(huan)(huan)剪式(shi),結構(gou)(gou)簡(jian)單,可以做成極(ji)小尺寸、高諧振頻率的(de)(de)加(jia)速(su)(su)度(du)計,環(huan)(huan)(huan)質(zhi)量(liang)粘在安裝(zhuang)在中(zhong)柱上的(de)(de)環(huan)(huan)(huan)形壓(ya)(ya)電元(yuan)(yuan)件(jian)(jian)上。由于粘結劑(ji)會隨著(zhu)溫(wen)度(du)的(de)(de)升高而軟化,工作溫(wen)度(du)受到(dao)限制。

  壓(ya)電(dian)(dian)(dian)加(jia)速(su)度(du)傳(chuan)感(gan)(gan)(gan)器(qi)的(de)(de)(de)使(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)上(shang)(shang)限(xian)頻(pin)(pin)(pin)率(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)取(qu)決于(yu)(yu)幅(fu)頻(pin)(pin)(pin)曲線中的(de)(de)(de)共(gong)(gong)振(zhen)(zhen)頻(pin)(pin)(pin)率(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv),一(yi)般小阻尼(ni)(z<=0.1)的(de)(de)(de)壓(ya)電(dian)(dian)(dian)加(jia)速(su)度(du)傳(chuan)感(gan)(gan)(gan)器(qi),上(shang)(shang)限(xian)頻(pin)(pin)(pin)率(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)若取(qu)為(wei)共(gong)(gong)振(zhen)(zhen)頻(pin)(pin)(pin)率(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)的(de)(de)(de)1/3,便可(ke)保證幅(fu)值(zhi)誤(wu)(wu)(wu)差(cha)低(di)于(yu)(yu)1dB(即12%);若取(qu)為(wei)共(gong)(gong)振(zhen)(zhen)頻(pin)(pin)(pin)率(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)的(de)(de)(de)1/5,則可(ke)保證幅(fu)值(zhi)誤(wu)(wu)(wu)差(cha)小于(yu)(yu)0.5dB(即6%),相(xiang)移小于(yu)(yu)30。但(dan)共(gong)(gong)振(zhen)(zhen)頻(pin)(pin)(pin)率(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)與(yu)(yu)壓(ya)電(dian)(dian)(dian)加(jia)速(su)度(du)傳(chuan)感(gan)(gan)(gan)器(qi)的(de)(de)(de)固(gu)定(ding)(ding)狀況有(you)關(guan),壓(ya)電(dian)(dian)(dian)加(jia)速(su)度(du)傳(chuan)感(gan)(gan)(gan)器(qi)出(chu)廠時給出(chu)的(de)(de)(de)幅(fu)頻(pin)(pin)(pin)曲線是(shi)在剛(gang)性(xing)(xing)連(lian)接(jie)(jie)的(de)(de)(de)固(gu)定(ding)(ding)情況下得(de)到(dao)的(de)(de)(de)。實(shi)際使(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)的(de)(de)(de)固(gu)定(ding)(ding)方(fang)(fang)法(fa)往往難于(yu)(yu)達到(dao)剛(gang)性(xing)(xing)連(lian)接(jie)(jie),因而共(gong)(gong)振(zhen)(zhen)頻(pin)(pin)(pin)率(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)和使(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)上(shang)(shang)限(xian)頻(pin)(pin)(pin)率(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)都會有(you)所(suo)下降(jiang)。其中采用(yong)(yong)(yong)鋼(gang)螺(luo)(luo)(luo)栓(shuan)固(gu)定(ding)(ding),是(shi)使(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)共(gong)(gong)振(zhen)(zhen)頻(pin)(pin)(pin)率(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)能達到(dao)出(chu)廠共(gong)(gong)振(zhen)(zhen)頻(pin)(pin)(pin)率(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)的(de)(de)(de)方(fang)(fang)法(fa)。螺(luo)(luo)(luo)栓(shuan)不(bu)得(de)全(quan)部擰入基座螺(luo)(luo)(luo)孔,以免引起基座變形(xing),影響壓(ya)電(dian)(dian)(dian)加(jia)速(su)度(du)傳(chuan)感(gan)(gan)(gan)器(qi)的(de)(de)(de)輸出(chu)。在安裝面(mian)上(shang)(shang)涂一(yi)層硅(gui)脂可(ke)增加(jia)不(bu)平(ping)整安裝表面(mian)的(de)(de)(de)連(lian)接(jie)(jie)可(ke)靠性(xing)(xing)。需要(yao)絕(jue)緣時可(ke)用(yong)(yong)(yong)絕(jue)緣螺(luo)(luo)(luo)栓(shuan)和云(yun)(yun)母(mu)墊片來固(gu)定(ding)(ding)壓(ya)電(dian)(dian)(dian)加(jia)速(su)度(du)傳(chuan)感(gan)(gan)(gan)器(qi),但(dan)墊圈應盡量簿(bu)。用(yong)(yong)(yong)一(yi)層簿(bu)蠟把壓(ya)電(dian)(dian)(dian)加(jia)速(su)度(du)傳(chuan)感(gan)(gan)(gan)器(qi)粘在試件(jian)平(ping)整表面(mian)上(shang)(shang),也可(ke)用(yong)(yong)(yong)于(yu)(yu)低(di)溫(40℃以下)的(de)(de)(de)場合。手(shou)持探針測(ce)振(zhen)(zhen)方(fang)(fang)法(fa),在多(duo)點測(ce)試時使(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)特別方(fang)(fang)便,但(dan)測(ce)量誤(wu)(wu)(wu)差(cha)較大,重(zhong)復性(xing)(xing)差(cha),使(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)上(shang)(shang)限(xian)頻(pin)(pin)(pin)率(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)一(yi)般不(bu)高于(yu)(yu)1000Hz。用(yong)(yong)(yong)專用(yong)(yong)(yong)磁鐵(tie)固(gu)定(ding)(ding)壓(ya)電(dian)(dian)(dian)加(jia)速(su)度(du)傳(chuan)感(gan)(gan)(gan)器(qi),使(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)方(fang)(fang)便,多(duo)在低(di)頻(pin)(pin)(pin)測(ce)量中使(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)。此法(fa)也可(ke)使(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)壓(ya)電(dian)(dian)(dian)加(jia)速(su)度(du)傳(chuan)感(gan)(gan)(gan)器(qi)與(yu)(yu)試件(jian)絕(jue)緣。用(yong)(yong)(yong)硬性(xing)(xing)粘接(jie)(jie)螺(luo)(luo)(luo)栓(shuan)或粘接(jie)(jie)劑的(de)(de)(de)固(gu)定(ding)(ding)方(fang)(fang)法(fa)也長使(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)。某種典(dian)型的(de)(de)(de)壓(ya)電(dian)(dian)(dian)加(jia)速(su)度(du)傳(chuan)感(gan)(gan)(gan)器(qi)采用(yong)(yong)(yong)上(shang)(shang)述各(ge)種固(gu)定(ding)(ding)方(fang)(fang)法(fa)的(de)(de)(de)共(gong)(gong)振(zhen)(zhen)頻(pin)(pin)(pin)率(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)分別約(yue)為(wei):鋼(gang)螺(luo)(luo)(luo)栓(shuan)固(gu)定(ding)(ding)法(fa)31kHz,云(yun)(yun)母(mu)墊片28kHz,涂簿(bu)蠟層29kHz,手(shou)持法(fa)2kHz,磁鐵(tie)固(gu)定(ding)(ding)法(fa)7kHz。



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